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Автор публикации: Ден Ги Сун

История водоснабжения и водоотведения

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Министерство образования Сахалинской областиГосударственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение «Сахалинский техникум строительства и жилищно-коммунального хозяйства»ВНЕКЛАССНОЕ МЕРОПРИЯТИЕпо учебной дисциплинеОГСЭ.03 Иностранный язык в профессиональной деятельностиИстория водоснабжения и водоотведениядля обучающихся по программе подготовки специалистов среднего звена по специальности: 08.02.04 «Водоснабжение и Водоотведение» (ВиВ-20) Разработала: Ден Ги Сун преподаватель иностранного языка первой категории, ГБПОУ «СТС и ЖКХ» г. Южно-Сахалинск, 2022 г.IntroductionThe history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization. Where water resources, infrastructure or sanitation systems were insufficient, diseases spread and people fell sick or died prematurely.Astronaut Jack Lousma taking a shower in space, 1974.Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near rivers or natural springs. Throughout history, people have devised systems to make getting water into their communities and households and disposing of (and later also treating) wastewater more convenient.[1]The historical focus of sewage treatment was on the conveyance of raw sewage to a natural body of water, e.g. a river or ocean, where it would be diluted and dissipated. Early human habitations were often built next to water sources. Rivers would often serve as a crude form of natural sewage disposal.Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated. Furthermore, treatment processes to purify drinking water and to treat wastewater have been improved. PrehistoryDuring the Neolithic era, humans dug the first permanent water wells, from where vessels could be filled and carried by hand. Wells dug around 6500 BC have been found in the  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jezreel_Valley" \o "Jezreel Valley" Jezreel Valley.[2] The size of human settlements was largely dependent on nearby available water.A primitive indoor, tree bark lined, two-channel, stone, fresh and wastewater system appears to have featured in the houses of  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skara_Brae" \o "Skara Brae" Skara Brae, and the  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnhouse_Settlement" \o "Barnhouse Settlement" Barnhouse Settlement, from around 3000 BCE, along with a cell-like enclave in a number of houses, of Skara Brae, that it has been suggested may have functioned as an early indoor latrine.[3][4][5][6][7]Wastewater reuse activitiesWastewater reuse is an ancient practice, which has been applied since the dawn of human history, and is connected to the development of sanitation provision.[8] Reuse of untreated municipal wastewater has been practiced for many centuries with the objective of diverting human waste outside of urban settlements. Likewise, land application of domestic wastewater is an old and common practice, which has gone through different stages of development.Domestic wastewater was used for irrigation by prehistoric civilizations (e.g. Mesopotamian, Indus valley, and Minoan) since the Bronze Age (ca. 3200-1100 BC).[9] Thereafter, wastewater was used for disposal, irrigation, and fertilization purposes by Hellenic civilizations and later by Romans in areas surrounding cities (e.g. Athens and Rome).Sewage farms for disposal and irrigation “Sewage farms” (i.e. wastewater application to the land for disposal and agricultural use) were operated in Bunzlau (Silesia) in 1531, in Edinburgh (Scotland) in 1650, in Paris (France) in 1868, in Berlin (Germany) in 1876 and in different parts of the USA since 1871, where wastewater was used for beneficial crop production. In the following centuries (16th and 18th centuries) in many rapidly growing countries/cities of Europe (e.g. Germany, France) and the United States, “sewage farms” were increasingly seen as a solution for the disposal of large volumes of the wastewater, some of which are still in operation today.  Irrigation with sewage and other wastewater effluents has a long history also in China and India while also a large “sewage farm” was established in Melbourne, Australia, in 1897Modern ageSewer systemsMany industrialized cities had incomplete public sanitation well into the 20th century. Outhouses in Brisbane, Australia, around 1950.A significant development was the construction of a network of sewers to collect wastewater. In some cities, including Rome, Istanbul (Constantinople) and  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fustat" \o "Fustat" Fustat, networked ancient sewer systems continue to function today as collection systems for those cities' modernized sewer systems. Instead of flowing to a river or the sea, the pipes have been re-routed to modern sewer treatment facilities.Basic sewer systems were used for waste removal in ancient Mesopotamia, where vertical shafts carried the waste away into cesspools. Similar systems existed in the Indus Valley civilization in modern-day India and in Ancient Crete and Greece. In the Middle Ages the sewer systems built by the Romans fell into disuse and waste was collected into cesspools that were periodically emptied by workers known as 'rakers' who would often sell it as fertilizer to farmers outside the city.Archaeological discoveries have shown that some of the earliest sewer systems were developed in the third millennium BCE in the ancient cities of Harappa and  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo-daro" \o "Mohenjo-daro" Mohenjo-daro in present-day Pakistan. The primitive sewers were carved in the ground alongside buildings. This discovery reveals the conceptual understanding of waste disposal by early civilizations.[71]However, until the Enlightenment era, little progress was made in water supply and sanitation and the engineering skills of the Romans were largely neglected throughout Europe. This began to change in the 17th and 18th centuries with a rapid expansion in waterworks and pumping systems.The tremendous growth of cities in Europe and North America during the Industrial Revolution quickly led to crowding, which acted as a constant source for the outbreak of disease.[72]: 4–8  As cities grew in the 19th century concerns were raised about public health.[73]: 33–62  As part of a trend of municipal sanitation programs in the late 19th and 20th centuries, many cities constructed extensive gravity sewer systems to help control outbreaks of disease such as typhoid and cholera.[74]: 29–34   HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storm_drain" \o "Storm drain" Storm and sanitary sewers were necessarily developed along with the growth of cities. By the 1840s the luxury of indoor plumbing, which mixes human waste with water and flushes it away, eliminated the need for cesspools.Modern sewerage systems were first built in the mid-nineteenth century as a reaction to the exacerbation of sanitary conditions brought on by heavy industrialization and urbanization. Baldwin Latham, a British civil engineer contributed to the rationalization of sewerage and house drainage systems and was a pioneer in sanitary engineering. He developed the concept of oval sewage pipe to facilitate sewer drainage and to prevent sludge deposition and flooding.[75] Due to the contaminated water supply, cholera outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849 and 1855 in London, killing tens of thousands of people. This, combined with the Great Stink of 1858, when the smell of untreated human waste in the River Thames became overpowering, and the report into sanitation reform of the Royal Commissioner Edwin Chadwick,[76] led to the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers appointing Joseph Bazalgette to construct a vast underground sewage system for the safe removal of waste. Contrary to Chadwick's recommendations, Bazalgette's system, and others later built in Continental Europe, did not pump the sewage onto farm land for use as fertilizer; it was simply piped to a natural waterway away from population centres, and pumped back into the environment.lefttopSkara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland with home furnishings including water-flushing toilets 3180 BC–2500 BClefttopA large well and bathing platforms at Harappa, remains of the city's final phase of occupation from 2200 to 1900  BC.lefttopWell, and drain, Lothal's acropolis! c.2350 BCE.lefttop People waiting in line for water from Manga Hiti in the city of Patan, NepallefttopManual Control Chlorinator for the liquefaction of chlorine for water purification, early 20th century. From Chlorination of Water by Joseph Race, 1918.ConclusionWater supply and sanitation are the most important sub-branches of the housing and communal complex of the country, aimed at improving people's living standards, the improvement of human settlements, the development of industry and agriculture.Water supply is understood as a complex of sanitary measures and engineering constructions designed to provide water of required quality to various consumers.The water supply system consists of water sources and water intake facilities, pumping stations and water treatment complexes, main pipelines, reservoirs and other devices.The variety of water supply systems encountered in practice can be classified according to the main features:- Type of use of natural sources - water pipelines receiving water from surface sources (river, lake, sea, etc.), from underground sources (artesian, spring, etc.), and water pipelines of mixed supply (when using different types of water sources);- By purpose - municipal (cities, towns), railway, agricultural, industrial water supply systems, which are subdivided by industry (water supply systems of chemical plants, thermal power plants, metallurgical plants, etc.);- Local (of one object) and group (or regional) water supply systems serving group of objects; by territorial principle - gravitational water supply systems and mechanical water supply systems (with pumps); by frequency of water use - direct flow systems, with water turnover, with sequential water use at different levels.The modern stage of development of housing and communal economy of the Russian Federation is characterized by its differentiation, i.e. allocation of separate systems from the single housing and communal complex, development of each of which requires independent legal regulation.While during the years of reforms in the energy and gas sectors legislation has been formed that regulates the basis for the organization of market relations in these spheres, the same cannot be said about water supply and sanitation. This situation is largely due to the fact that the country has never had and does not have a unified federal water supply system. As a rule, water supply and sanitation are local, less often regional systems. At the same time, their life-supporting significance is no less, if not greater, than that of the electricity, heat and gas supply systems.Currently, the regulations governing the activities of housing and communal services, including water supply and sanitation are at different levels of government: federal, regional and local.The automated control system for water supply and sanitation facilities is designed to automate the process of collection and processing of information about the operation of sewage pumping stations, water pumping stations and other facilities of the water supply and sanitation network, as well as to solve problems of centralized management of water supply and sanitation facilities from the centralized control room.Список литературы: "Ṭahāra". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2019.Baldwin Latham (1878). Sanitary engineering: A guide to the construction of works of sewerage and house drainage, with tables for facilitating the calculations of the engineer. E. & F.N. Spon. pp. 1. Environmental and Water Resources Milestones in Engineering History. Tampa, Florida, USA: ASCE Publications. 15–19 March 2007. ISBN 9780784471968. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2016.Medieval Sewerage of the City of Dubrovnik, Ivica Žile ; Ministarstvo kulture Uprava za zaštitu kulturne baštine Konzervatorski odjel u Dubrovniku, 2007.George Commair, "The Waste Water Network: and underground view of Paris," in Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and History Symposium, May 17–19, 2009, Kansas City, Missouri, ed. Jerry R. Roger, (Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009), 91-96

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